What Is The Name Of The First International Agreement On Climate Change

15. Oktober 2021

#environmental sustainability #nature #climate change There are a number of views on the scale of climate change that is dangerous. [46] Scientific analyses can shed light on the risks of climate change, but deciding which risks are dangerous requires value judgments. [47] The Paris Agreement set a deadline of 2018 for countries to develop and agree on guidelines for the full implementation of the agreement before its entry into force in 2020. The Kyoto Protocol implemented the UNFCCC`s goal of reducing the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to „levels that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interventions in the climate system“ (Article 2). The Kyoto Protocol applies to the six greenhouse gases listed in Annex A: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). [6] Some environmentalists have supported the Kyoto Protocol because it is the „only game in the city“ and perhaps because they expect future emission reduction commitments to require stricter emission reductions (Aldy et al., 2003, p. 9). [123] In 2001, seventeen national academies of sciences declared ratification of the Protocol a „small but essential first step towards stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases.“ [124] Some environmentalists and scientists have criticized existing obligations as too weak (Grubb, 2000, p. 5). [125] Paris Agreement, 2015.

The most important global climate agreement to date, the Paris Agreement, requires all countries to make emission reduction commitments. Governments set targets known as nationwide contributions with the aim of preventing the global average temperature from rising by 2°C (3.6°F) above pre-industry levels and striving to keep it below 1.5°C (2.7°F). It also aims to achieve net-zero global emissions in the second half of the century, when the amount of greenhouse gases emitted is equal to the amount removed from the atmosphere. (This is also known as carbon neutral or climate neutral.) In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia declared that they would no longer adopt Kyoto targets. [106] On December 12, 2011, the Canadian government came into force on December 15, 2011. In December 2012, it withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol, which is possible at any time three years after its ratification. [107] Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 6% in order of 1990 by 2012, but in 2009 emissions were 17% higher than in 1990. The Harper administration prioritized oil sands development in Alberta and depriorized the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment Minister Peter Kent stressed Canada`s responsibility for „huge financial penalties“ under the treaty if it did not withdraw. [106] [108] He also suggested that the recently signed Durban Agreement could offer another way forward. [109] The Harper government has stated that it will find a „made in Canada“ solution. Canada`s decision received a generally negative response from representatives of other countries that ratified it.

[109] In 1972, the first international summit on the environment was held in Stockholm, Sweden. This conference, convened by the United Nations, marked a turning point in the development of international environmental policy. It led to the creation of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and commitments to coordinate global efforts to promote sustainability and protect the natural environment. .

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