Treaties And Agreements Involving Dod Activities

13. April 2021

First, ceteris paribus says that adherence to a large number of defence agreements is a sign of diffuse reliability. Footnote 79 The quality of the information in this signal depends in part on the costs of high-quality nodes. Footnote 80 DCAs include non-trivial transaction fees. Some DCAs take years to negotiate. Most of them require enforcement laws that may face opposition from national political groups. After implementation, DCAs require maintenance costs such as joint working groups, industrial cooperation in defence and educational exchanges. The biggest cost is the risk of failure. The exchange of classified information, cooperation in defence research with or the export of arms to a non-trustworthy state does not increase security, but undermines it. These risks define the problem of collaboration in DCAs. It is important for governments to recognize that the CMA`s commitments reassure others of their benevolent intentions. In 2008, for example, the U.S.

Embassy in Jakarta stated that „signing a DCA with Indonesia would send a strong message of mutual trust“ and „create a stronger basis for mil-mil cooperation.“ Similarly, Carter called the many U.S. bilateral defence agreements in Asia „confidence-building measures“ and „efforts to improve transparency.“ Footnote 82 All the more, the desire to broadly accept the risks of CAD is a „public commitment“ to the co-op`s operating policies, notes 83, which in turn makes high-grade nodes more attractive. The central empirical puzzle with dcAs, represented in Figures 1 and 3, is the sustained growth of new chords. First of all, I theorize the DCAs as a kind of cooperation problem that distinguishes between the demand for DCAs, largely motivated by government attributes and exogenous changes in the global security environment, and the provision of DCAs, limited by incomplete information. Second, I am talking about the exogenous influences on defence cooperation of more detailed and identifiable Dyad-level variables, which probably affect the likelihood of DCAs. Finally, I turn to networks. I show that specific network flows remove barriers to information and promote the dissemination of DCA. A final important feature is that defense partners often sign multiple DCAs. They may, for example, replace a previous agreement or simply prefer a piecemeal approach in which they deal with issues in separate agreements and not in a single general agreement.

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